Pharmacy and Applied Health Sciences <p>Pharmacy and Applied Health Sciencess (PHAHS) is an open access online peer-reviewed international Journal that encourages researchers to make beneficial contributions in Pharmacy and Health Sciences. Case reports, original research work (either as a Full Research Paper or as a Short Communication), and review articles are published in the Journal. The Journal's mission is to provide high-quality scientific publications in the field of pharmacy and health sciences. For a qualitative and rapid review process, the Journal employs the Editorial Tracking System. Review processing is handled by the Health Science Journal editorial board members or relevant experts from other universities and institutes. Acceptance of any citable manuscript requires the approval of at least two independent reviewers, followed by editor approval. Authors can use the Online Manuscript Submission to submit manuscripts and follow their progress.</p> en-US <p>All PHAHS Journal articles are published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0) which allows authors retain copyright and others may not use the material for commercial purposes. A commercial use is one primarily intended for commercial advantage or monetary compensation. If others remix, transform, or build upon the material, they may not distribute the modified material.</p> <p>Copyright on any research article published by the PHAHS Open Access journal is retained by the author(s). Authors also grant any third party the right to use the article freely as long as its original authors, citation details and publisher are identified.<br />Use of the article in whole or part in any medium requires attribution suitable in form and content as follows: [Title of Article/Author/Journal Title and Volume/Issue. Copyright (c) [year] [copyright owner as specified in the Journal]. Links to the final article on PHAHS website are encouraged where applicable.<br />The CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 Creative Commons Attribution License does not affect the moral rights of authors, including without limitation the right not to have their work subjected to derogatory treatment. It also does not affect any other rights held by authors or third parties in the article, including trademark or patent rights, or the rights of privacy and publicity. Use of the article must not assert or imply, whether implicitly or explicitly, any connection with, endorsement or sponsorship of such use by the author, publisher or any other party associated with the article.</p> [email protected] (Dr. Nahla Abdalhamed Abdaljabar) [email protected] (Editor) Sat, 30 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 60 Development of Polymeric Nanoparticles of Sunitinib malate in Eudragit S 100 for anti-colon cancer targeted drug delivery <p> Sunitinib malate (SM) is a multi-targeted tyrosine kinase (TK) inhibitor. It is proposed as a potent anticancer drug intended for colon cancer. The current work aimed at developing Sunitinib malate -loaded nanoparticles for colon- targeting. SM loaded ES100-nanoparticles were developed by nano-precipitation method using poly vinyl alcohol (PVA) as stabilizer. Different formulation of ESNP (F1-F3) were prepared and evaluated for particle size, poly-dispersity index, and drug entrapment, using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), x-ray diffraction (XRD), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The optimized formulation was further studied by in-vitro drug release and anticancer cell line study. The mean particle size, PDI, %EE of optimized SM loaded ESNPF2 was found to be 384.8±5.53 nm, 0.58, and 60.31% respectively. In vitro release of the optimized ESNPF2 showed 10.2 % drug release till 2 h, at 4h 29.6% and 12 h and 24 h 66.45%, 82.2% respectively at pH 7.4. SEM images and surface morphology confirmed that nanoparticles were spherical and had smooth surfaces. An MTT assay was conducted in the colon cancer cell lines (CACO2) to evaluate anti-cancerous activity of SM. SM loaded ESNPF2 showed a high potential against colon cancer cells. The overall results suggest that SM loaded ES100-nanoparticels could be a potential option for colon targeting.</p> SHAHID JAMIL , Md Khalid Anwer , Traiq Waece Sadeq, Kanchan Kohli Copyright (c) 2023 SHAHID JAMIL , Md Khalid Anwer , Traiq Waece Sadeq, Kanchan Kohli Sat, 30 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 HFE gene changes in obese individuals in Mosul <p>Obesity represent one of major health problem worldwide in previous work in our laboratory significant change in iron status was notic. This study try to discover the relationship HFE gene copies number and obesity. This case control study included 90 subjects classified as 50 obese and 50 normal weight as the control group. Their ages ranged from 12 to 22 years old and carried out in Mosul during the period of April to June 2022.&nbsp;Complete blood picture was used to study the change in blood parameters. In addition serum ferritin was evaluated using ELISA kit.Gene copies number was assess using the GoTaq qPCR.&nbsp; The results of this work showed that in obese patients highest levels of hemoglobin found in compare to control (p&lt;0.05) As observed in patients leukocyte level was which significantly higher than control p&lt;0.05. Elevated levels of Platlate were observed in a significant higher proportion of patients than controls, Neutrophil&nbsp; and Lymphocyte also showed a significantly higher level in obese than control. High serum ferritin levels in obese individuals was observe in compare to controls. There was significant increase in the number of copies of the HFE gene in obese patients compare controls. In conclusion,&nbsp; HFE gene copies number increase in obese individuals as compensatory mechanism.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Tamarah N. Qasim, Muhammad Ahmed Ahmed Al Kataan, Mwafk K. Hasan Copyright (c) 2023 Tamarah N. Qasim, Muhammad Ahmed Ahmed Al Kataan, Mwafk K. Hasan Sat, 30 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Exercise Cause Patellofemoral Pain among Young Adult: a Cross Sectional Study <h1>Abstract</h1> <p>Patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS) is a prevalent musculoskeletal injury affecting both athletes and non-athletes, characterized by anterior knee pain. Diagnosis can be difficult due to similar symptoms with other conditions. Treatment should focus on overall rehabilitation, including strengthening and stretching exercises, rest, ice, bracing and taping. The knee joint is complex and plays an important role in daily activities, but is also one of the most commonly injured joints.This study was conducted at the University of Erbil Technical and Medical Health College to investigate PFPS in college students aged between 20-40 years there were 102 participants. A self-report questionnaire was used to collect data on biographic information. It was found that instead of the knee pain is more among the athletic group but the result statistically insignificant predictor of knee pain among the study participants P-value = 0.823. Finally, our study concluded that athletic and non-athletic developed PFPS , but athletic more than non- athletic , male and female affected by this condition, also types of exercises have effect according to results strengthen and stretching exercise they do for example football, fitness caused PFPS.</p> Zekra Ali Aziz , Hardi Bahram Sdeeq, Narin Asoad Aziz, Handren Fatih Khder, Shiraz Shirzad Abdullah Copyright (c) 2023 Zekra Ali Aziz , Hardi Bahram Sdeeq, Narin Asoad Aziz, Handren Fatih Khder, Shiraz Shirzad Abdullah Sat, 30 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000