Pharmacy and Applied Health Sciences <p>Pharmacy and Applied Health Sciencess (PHAHS) is an open access online peer-reviewed international Journal that encourages researchers to make beneficial contributions in Pharmacy and Health Sciences. Case reports, original research work (either as a Full Research Paper or as a Short Communication), and review articles are published in the Journal. The Journal's mission is to provide high-quality scientific publications in the field of pharmacy and health sciences. For a qualitative and rapid review process, the Journal employs the Editorial Tracking System. Review processing is handled by the Health Science Journal editorial board members or relevant experts from other universities and institutes. Acceptance of any citable manuscript requires the approval of at least two independent reviewers, followed by editor approval. Authors can use the Online Manuscript Submission to submit manuscripts and follow their progress.</p> Knowledge University en-US Pharmacy and Applied Health Sciences 2959-0280 <p>All PHAHS Journal articles are published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0) which allows authors retain copyright and others may not use the material for commercial purposes. A commercial use is one primarily intended for commercial advantage or monetary compensation. If others remix, transform, or build upon the material, they may not distribute the modified material.</p> <p>Copyright on any research article published by the PHAHS Open Access journal is retained by the author(s). Authors also grant any third party the right to use the article freely as long as its original authors, citation details and publisher are identified.<br />Use of the article in whole or part in any medium requires attribution suitable in form and content as follows: [Title of Article/Author/Journal Title and Volume/Issue. Copyright (c) [year] [copyright owner as specified in the Journal]. Links to the final article on PHAHS website are encouraged where applicable.<br />The CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 Creative Commons Attribution License does not affect the moral rights of authors, including without limitation the right not to have their work subjected to derogatory treatment. It also does not affect any other rights held by authors or third parties in the article, including trademark or patent rights, or the rights of privacy and publicity. Use of the article must not assert or imply, whether implicitly or explicitly, any connection with, endorsement or sponsorship of such use by the author, publisher or any other party associated with the article.</p> The Prevalence of Anemia and Associated Nutritional Factors <p>Nutritional anemia is one of the most common types of anemia worldwide and is considered a major public health problem especially in developing countries. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the prevalence and risk factors of anemia among university students in the Kurdistan region. A cross-sectional study of 151 healthy university’s students aged between 18 and 28 years was performed between November and February 2019-2020. Blood was collected to measure hemoglobin, and a questionnaire was designed to determine participants’ nutrition habits. A Pearson’s chi-square test was used to reveal anemia risk factors. The anemia prevalence was 17.9%. The factors associated with an elevated anemia risk were inadequate vegetables and red meat intakes, in addition to drinking tea after meals. This study revealed that a considered part of university students have anemia that might become worse by malnutrition. Our results suggest that anemia can be prevented by encouraging the consumption of rich dietary iron, folic acid, and B12 sources and by raising awareness of the food and drinks which facilitate or hinder the bioavailability of these nutrients.</p> Zean F. Zefenkey Copyright (c) 2022 Zean F. Zefenkey 2022-11-19 2022-11-19 1 2 1 5 Effect of Mint Leaves Powder (Mentha sp.) on Fungi Associated with Sunflower Helianthus annus L. Seeds <p>Sunflower Helianthus annus is one of the economically significant crops. During poor storage conditions, seed-borne fungi develop. As a result, it is polluted with mycotoxins and its quality is reduced for various uses Chemical and non-chemical methods to control fungal contamination were used. The current study examined the fungi associated with local products seeds and the antifungal activity of mint leaves powder (MLP) on seeds-borne isolates. Alternaria sp., Aspergillus sp., Cladosporium sp., Fusarium sp., Mucor sp., Penicillium sp., Pythium sp., Rhizopus sp., Trichoderma sp., were isolated from untreated seeds by moistened chamber method. Mixing MLP with sunflower seeds decreased the number of fungal isolates. Aspergillus, Mucor, Penicillium, Pythium, and Trichoderma disappear from tested seed samples after month. Also the seed germination% increase after mixing with MLP (not significant), it indicates that the treatment did not affect the embryo's vitality, the significant characteristic for the seeds that will be used for planting.</p> Salah M. Saleem Copyright (c) 2022 Salah M. Saleem 2022-12-18 2022-12-18 1 2 18 21 Anatomical Study and Antimicrobial Activities of Ammimajus <p><em>Ammimajus</em> is a plant species in the family Apiaceae, The purpose of this study was to assess anatomical and antibacterial and antifungal activities of <em>Ammimajus</em>, which taken from collage of Sciences/Salaheddin University/Erbil. Anatomical studies by the using paraffin method, have shown that the outline of stems, petiole lamina, and margin, they contain secretary canals with presence unicellular glandular and unicellular non glandular trichomes. The antimicrobial activity prepared by extract using ethanol (95%) method from stem, leaf and flower, then provide the different concentration of extract, which shown the exhibit antibacterial effects on some microorganisms as <em>Staphylococcus aureus,Acinetobacterbaumannii</em>, <em>Pseudomonasaeruginosa</em> and <em>Candida albicans</em>.</p> Chnar N. Fathulla Fouad H. Kamel Shaho I. Rahman Abdulkareem S. Othman Tariq W. Sadeq Copyright (c) 2022 Chnar N. Fathulla, Fouad H. Kamel, Shaho I. Rahman, Abdulkareem S. Othman, Tariq W. Sadeq 2022-12-28 2022-12-28 1 2 22 26 Heavy Metal Toxicity and its Effect on Living Organisms <p>The pollution chain of heavy metals, such as industry, climate, soil, water, food and humans, nearly always assumes cyclical order in the climate. It is clear that the harmful consequences are caused by prolonged exposure to metalloids and heavy metals at minimum doses. It has been proven that heavy metals are harmful for environmental and human. Strong toxicity of a metal is recognized with a significant hazard and it is associated with many health hazards. They also antagonism component of the body, but metabolic activities can interact with metabolic processes at some times. By reduction exercises, few metals, such as aluminum, can be eliminated.</p> Dldar S. Ismael Muharam Y. Mohammed Tariq W. Sadeq Copyright (c) 2022 Dldar S. Ismael, Muharam Y. Mohammed, Tariq W. Sadeq 2022-12-09 2022-12-09 1 2 11 17 Cancer Prevention by Epigenetic Modulation of Phytochemicals <p>"Epigenetics," which emphasizes the impact of active dietary agents on the function of epigenetics, has become an exciting new field of study in recent years. Focusing on aberrant epigenetic alterations during earlier carcinogenesis has been considered in cancer chemotherapy research since, unlike genetic mutations, these differences are reversible. Genes that operate as signal transducers, nuclear receptors, cell cycle regulators, and transcription factors, among others, can be silenced by abnormal epigenetic processes such as DNA promoter methylation, histone changes, and post-transcriptional modifications mediated by miRNA. DNA, gene product maintenance, apoptosis-inducing, and ultimately result in carcinogenesis. An analysis of several natural phytochemicals has been performed on food and medicinal plants to recognize potential and develop anticancer agents that cause the minor lesion to normal cells and effectively destroy cancer cells. A study of several natural phytochemicals found in food and medicinal plants was conducted in order to identify potential and develop anticancer agents that cause a minor lesion in normal cells while effectively destroying cancer cells. According to this study, plant phytochemicals may be involved in the targeted epigenetic modulation of miRNAs, DNA methyltransferases, histone altering enzymes, and carcinogenesis.</p> Hero I. Mohammed Sahar Hassannejad Hoshyar S. Ali Copyright (c) 2022 Hero I. Mohammed, Sahar Hassannejad, Hoshyar S. Ali 2022-12-30 2022-12-30 1 2 27 41 The Unnecessary Uses of Antibiotics During COVID-19 Fulfill Antibiotic Resistance <p>Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) is a critical health challenge in all countries and according to united nation report, one of the most common problems during COVID -19 is the bacterial resistance to antimicrobial drugs that face the health issues which is due to antibiotics misuses during the pandemic disease as a protective to expected secondary bacterial infections after a viral infection. Subsequently COVID-19 early phase courage or enhance this massive antibiotic use in several countries all over the world. The purpose of this review to cover the prevalence and reasons behind these antibiotics misuse and analyze most common antibiotics uses during early-phase COVID-19 pandemic.</p> Asmaa A. Ahmed Copyright (c) 2022 Asmaa A. Ahmed, Tariq W. Sadeq 2022-11-27 2022-11-27 1 2 6 10