Heavy Metal Toxicity and its Effect on Living Organisms

A Review in Toxicology Study


  • Dldar S. Ismael Department of Medical Laboratory, Erbil Medical Technical Institute, Erbil Polytechnic University, Erbil, Iraq
  • Muharam Y. Mohammed Department of Medical Laboratory, Erbil Medical Technical Institute, Erbil Polytechnic University, Erbil, Iraq
  • Tariq W. Sadeq Department of Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Knowledge University, Erbil, Kurdistan Region, Iraq


Free radicals, Metal toxicity, Heavy metals, Oxidative stress


The pollution chain of heavy metals, such as industry, climate, soil, water, food and humans, nearly always assumes cyclical order in the climate. It is clear that the harmful consequences are caused by prolonged exposure to metalloids and heavy metals at minimum doses. It has been proven that heavy metals are harmful for environmental and human. Strong toxicity of a metal is recognized with a significant hazard and it is associated with many health hazards. They also antagonism component of the body, but metabolic activities can interact with metabolic processes at some times. By reduction exercises, few metals, such as aluminum, can be eliminated.


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How to Cite

Ismael, D. S., Mohammed, M. Y. ., & Sadeq, T. W. (2022). Heavy Metal Toxicity and its Effect on Living Organisms: A Review in Toxicology Study. Pharmacy and Applied Health Sciences, 1(2), 11–17. Retrieved from https://phahs.knu.edu.iq/index.php/phahs/article/view/8



Review Paper